October Update

Bought a standard poodle puppy.  Bringing him home October 5, so October will be full of housebreaking, and FUN.



Entries in oxygen radical (2)


Genes Teach Us About Parkinson's Disease, Part 1

Parkinson’s Disease occurs when the brain cells that produce the neurotransmitter dopamine deteriorate.  The result may be shaking and difficulty with walking, movment, and coordination.  There is no cure.

         It’s sad but true that we learn more in biology when things go wrong than when things go right.  If a process is going along normally, we can’t see the parts of that process.  But if one or a few parts of the malfunction, suddenly the gaps highlight the missing steps, and we understand the normal process better.

         This has happened with the discovery of genes associated with Parkinson’s Disease.  Even though only a small percentage of cases of Parkinson’s Disease are caused or exacerbated by gene malfunctions, those genes are enlightening Parkinson’s researchers.

         Interestingly, a lot of the genes in question have to do with oxidation and/or waste clean-up in dopamine producing brain cells.  Ultimately this information could lead to new treatments for the disease.  

         If too much of a gene product is gumming up neurons, it could be that stopping or slowing that gene product could prevent the damage.  And it could be that even if the gene is normal in some Parkinson’s sufferers, an environmental factor is causing the same problem.  In that case, the cure might be similar.

         Alternatively, too little of a different gene product might interfere with normal cell clean-up.  The resulting waste accumulation could also gum things up.  Again, environmental factors could mimic this problem.  In either case, some way of supplying the missing molecule(s) might help.

         Food for thought.  I’ll say more about this in my next post.



What Is Autism Trying to Teach Us?

The rising number of children with autism could be a warning.  Genetically, these children may be especially sensitive to some of the tens of thousands of pollutants in our environment.  

        According to Discover magazine, autism researchers have begun paying attention to the digestive and immune disturbances that accompany the personality aberrations of autism.  Autism is probably connected to genetics.  That’s “genetics,” not “a gene.”  And autism is probably connected to environment.  Like most genetic phenomena, it’s a combination of nature and nurture.

        Genes often work in teams, like this:  All your cells need a certain anti-oxidant molecule.  In each cell, gene 1 in the team manufactures the first part of the anti-oxidant molecule.  Then gene 2 in the team takes the first part of the anti-oxidant and adds a second part.  Then gene 3 adds a third part, and so on until a final gene completes the job.  When the anti-oxidant molecule—let’s call it glutathione—is finished, it can start detoxifying poisonous oxygen radicals that result from daily cell work.

        Now let’s suppose that one of the genes in the glutathione team is handicapped.  Glutathione production slows down. Or the glutathione is defective.  Either way, crowds of oxygen radicals accumulate and interfere with cell functions.  Lots of different kinds of cells suffer when this happens: digestive cells, immune cells, and brain cells, just to name a few.

        One form of suffering brought on by this excess of oxygen radicals has to do with the way cells repair damage from allergens or pollutants.    In addition to the gene team that makes glutathione, each cell has teams of repair genes.  A handicapped gene in a repair team may become even more handicapped when it is stressed by the poisonous accumulation of oxygen radicals.  So repair slows down.  When your cells have unrepaired damage, they send out calls for help, and the first thing your body does is mount a defense that includes inflammation.  If the damage remains unrepaired, the inflammation may become chronic: you get chronic digestive problems, chronic allergic problems, and chronic inflammation of the brain.

        So here and there a handicapped glutathione gene plus a handicapped repair gene might lead to what we call autism.  And the rising number of kids with autism might be an indication of what can happen to human beings in a polluted environment.